How a hydraulic axial piston pump works

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Hydraulic axial piston pumpAxial Glossary Link piston pumps are generally the most used worldwide in applications where high Glossary Link pressure, Glossary Link flow and pressure variability and ease of Glossary Link control are needed.

They are also expensive but the cost is justified by the versatility they offer.


Here are some examples of pumps from different manufacturers and types.


Hydraulic Axial piston pumps


This is now the most popular Glossary Link pump in the markets of mobile machinery and industrial market complex machines.

It is easy to see these pumps developing 6000 or 7000 psi (410 Glossary Link bar 0480). The designs of different manufacturers vary but they are generally very similar.


The operating principle is based on cylindrical pistons operating in the same direction of the drive shaft and positioned around it. The pistons are inside the Glossary Link barrel that gives the back to the rear cover where the ports are located and, on the other side is the swash plate where lie the sliding shoes. Once the shaft rotates, the barrel starts to move also. The pistons start to move inside of it in and out sucking Glossary Link fluid from the suction. During each turn, each piston sucks and pumps the fluid. The pistons remain attached to sliding plate by the spring preload which gives minimal Glossary Link force to the barrel and pistons to be tightened to give good Glossary Link efficiency at the time of startup.


Hydraulic axial piston pump


The pumping chambers are determined by the Glossary Link volume that each piston developes during each revolution, ie, piston area x inside the barrel travel. The piston gap in the barrel is very small, as well as the space between the surface of the barrel and the rear cover. The heads of the pistons sliding in the inclined plate by the force that generates the necessary pressure and also the clearance is minimal.

In the photos below you can see the cap and barrel on surfaces that contact. It can be seen that several pistons are connected to the pressure Glossary Link port and the suction while several others are in transition.


Rear cover and piston barrel


In this manner is that it makes the transfer of fluid suction to discharge. In some pumps back cover does not touch the barrel or draw directly, but has an intermediate plate which can be replaced at a low cost when worn as shown in the figure below. In these we see the intermediate plate left where you see the pressure and suction ports. In the second picture, the barrel is inside the pump body and in the right is the plate superimposed over the barrel to see how the chambers are connected to the ports barrel. In the photo on the right side we can see a rear cover plate with the ports positioned. It should be noted, that each manufacturer gives their own dimensions for your pump, that is why there are so many ways for these port plates.


Barrel and port plate together

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